Category Archives: Specs

All the Smartwatches 2015

Everyone knows this has been the year of the wearables.  From IFA to the fashion world, everyone is getting on board this train.  Whether you’re looking for a wrist-wearable replacement for your phone or a classic timepiece with a little something extra, today’s wearables market can provide.  But now, how to choose?

There are literally hundreds of smartwatches, smart jewelry, and fitness trackers out there, all with different features and capabilities.  To help you out, we gathered up all the information we could find on all the smartwatches we could find and put it into this handy chart.  Starting at the top with the $2,300 Kairos SSW with a connected T-band, the watches listed get more affordable as you move toward the bottom, where you’ll find several options for less than $100.  We’ve only included wearables that fit into the category of “smartwatch”  meaning they can provide at least basic smartphone-related communications (text and call alerts, calendar alerts) and can tell you the time.  For other functions, check out the key at the bottom to find your favorite features or just find your price range and choose the one with the most.  Of course, some of this information can be hard to find and different sources sometimes say different things, but we think this will give you a great place to start in your quest for the perfect smartwatch.

Smartwatches 2015 Infographic

What Phone Specs Mean to You, Pt. 4: The Camera

iPhone 6 cameraAlright.  So now you know all about the specs for your smartphone’s CPU (its brain), screen (its face), and connectivity (its ears and mouth).  Now, we’re gonna get into the specs related to your phone’s camera, the eye (or eyes, on most modern models) that sees your world and captures it for transmission to the masses.

Many of these terms also apply to regular cameras, but with digital cameras, and especially smartphone cameras, things sometimes work a little differently.

The camera

Term

What it
refers to

What it means to you

Megapixels (MP) Picture size/ resolution Pixels are the tiny dots of color that every picture you take is made up of.  They are also the tiny dots that capture that picture.  A megapixel is a million of these dots.  The more dots in the frame, the bigger you can make a picture without it getting blurry and the deeper you can zoom in without losing details.  A 5MP resolution is high enough to print clearly on an A4 sized page.  Nevertheless, many smartphones these days offer 13-16MP cameras, and there are some camera-focused phones that offer 20 to 40MP cameras and more.
Microns (μm) Pixel size There is no uniform size for the pixels that make up the megapixels that manufacturers use to tell you about the resolution of their cameras, but most in cell phones range from 1-1.5 microns.  In proper cameras, you’re looking at 3.5 and larger.  Larger pixels are able to take in more light, which will tend to give you a better picture.  For this reason, more pixels are not always better.  If pixels are made too small in order to accommodate greater numbers, they will not have enough light to give you a good photo.
CMOS (complementary metal-oxidesemiconductor) and
CCD
(charge-coupled device)
Image sensor The image sensor is the part of your phone’s camera that captures light, which makes it very important for picture quality.  The good folks over at C|net have a great explanation for why its size matters:  “Imagine you have buckets (pixels) laid out on a blacktop (sensor). You want to collect the most water (light) in those buckets as possible…the larger the sensor you have (blacktop), the larger the pixels (buckets) you can put onto it, and the more light (water) you can collect.”  Larger sensors are why an 8MP shot from a digital SLR camera is generally better that one from a smartphone camera; typical smartphone sensors are around .3- to .5-inch, a basic DSLR will have a sensor between .8 and .9.  This isn’t a spec you are likely to see on the list at the cell phone store, but CameraImageSensor.com can be a useful resource for this spec.  Naturally, slimmer, smaller phones limit how big a sensor can be.   According to GSM Arena, CMOS sensors are generally smaller, cheaper and more energy efficient but currently deliver the same image quality as CCD sensors.
Backside illumination (BSI) Image sensor This is a type of CMOS sensor designed to make it easier for light to reach the necessary part of the image sensor.  The result is that it tends to take better low-light photographs.  On the flipside, some users have noticed that photos taken with a BSI CMOS sensor in full sunlight can look washed out or slightly overexposed.  Most major camera manufacturers have models that use BSI sensors, but only a few phones are so far making use of the technology, as it is still pretty expensive.
f-number/ f-stop (f/#.#) Aperture Aperture determines the amount of light that is able to reach the image sensor.  Oddly, the higher this number, the smaller the amount of light that is being let in.  So a camera with an f/2.2 maximum aperture will be able to collect more ambient light than a camera with a maximum f/2.8 aperture.  Aperture has two primary effects: 1) A camera using a smaller number aperture will perform somewhat better with no flash in low-light situations and 2) a camera using a higher number will have a broader range of focus (so you and your beach umbrella and the hot surfer 15 feet behind you will all be in focus, if the number is high enough).  Some smartphone cameras allow you to adjust the aperture or have settings that will adjust it automatically.
Millimeters (mm) Focal length/
lens size
The focal length on any camera (and in our eyes, for that matter) is the distance from the lens to the sensor.  Increasing focal length allows a camera to focus on objects further away.  This, however, also narrows the field of view.  A wide angle lens, then, provides a very short focal length.  Most cell phones have a fixed focal length between 25 and 35, though there are a few camera phones, like the Nokia Lumia 1020 and Galaxy S4 Zoom that utilize optical zoom (see below).  This measurement should not be confused with lens size, which is also measured in mm (i.e. 35mm) but is not so relevant for camera phones.
1x zoom, 6x zoom, etc. Optical zoom On cameras with adjustable lenses, optical zoom is the highest focal possible length divided by the smallest possible focal length.  1x zoom means, essentially, that the focal length is not adjustable.  Any zoom capabilities these phones have, then, result from there being more image detail available because of higher resolution or has been added by a smartphone compatible lens kit.  The Nokia Lumia 1020, while does utilize optical zoom, has 6x zoom, while the Galaxy S4 zoom has 10x.  A Nikon COOLPIX P610 come with 60x zoom.
LED
(light-emitting diode)
Flash single LED flash_smartphoneThis is sort of the standard flash for cell phone cameras.  It is just what it sounds like, a single LED lamp positioned near the camera lens that illuminates whatever is in its scope, which is usually not more than a couple of yards in each direction.
Dual LED Flash dual LED flash_smartphoneAs you might guess, this is a flash arrangement with two LED lamps instead of one.  It helps to make flash shots look more colorful and evenly-lit than shots taken with single-LED flashes and increases the area illuminated by about a third.  It also draws twice as much power, which is no big deal for photos, but is something to consider for video.  The iPhone 5s introduced “True Tone” technology, a dual LED flash with one amber and one white LED that it can adjust so that the color of the flash matches the white balance of ambient light, giving photos taken with flash a more natural appearance.
-xenon Flash Nokia xenon flash_smartphoneXenon flashes are not too common on phones, but they do show up on a few.  They emit a more powerful burst of light than LED-based flashes, which tends to create a more even look to a scene, rather than the spotlight effect phone cameras often produce.  However, xenon only creates a burst, so it cannot be used to illuminate a scene for video.  Xenon flashes also tend to be a bit bulkier.
Optical Image Stabilization (OIS) Image quality OIS employs a tiny gyroscope within the camera that detects tiny movements of the lens (usually caused by unsteady hands) and directs small actuators to move the lens, in real time, to compensate.  This is especially helpful in low light situations when the camera needs a little more time to take in light and the smallest movement of your hand can result in a blurry picture.  It also makes for much smoother video.
HDR
(High Dynamic Range)
Image quality Dynamic range is basically the difference between the lightest light and darkest dark your camera can capture.   Light things outside of this range tend to show up just bright white blurs and dark things at the opposite end of the range turn into just black shapes.   The HDR setting on your phone’s camera essentially takes three photos at different exposures (shifting the dynamic range to include more of the lights and more of the darks), then combines them so that everything captured in each range shows up in one picture.  This is especially good in peculiar light settings (sun shining into a dark room or something in the shadows on a bright day).
Front-facing
camera
Selfies This is the camera that allows you to look at the screen and capture yourself on camera at the same time.  It usually will be lower resolution than your primary camera (2-5 MP) and typically will not have a flash function.  The HTC Desire Eye is a notable exception to both of these tendencies, offering a 13MP front-facing camera with a dual-LED flash on both sides.

Video

Term

What it
refers to

What it means to you

1080p (Full HD) Video resolution If your specs mention that you can shoot video in Full HD or at 1080p, it means that your frames will have a resolution of about 1920×1080pixels, HD quality video.
4K/ Ultra HD Video resolution Ultra HD is an even higher resolution video than Full HD, with something like 3,840 x 2,160 pixels per frame.  4K refers to picture with a vertical resolution of 4,000 pixels, but since 3,840 is pretty close, Ultra HD is often labeled as 4K and is the 4K standard for the television industry.  The 4K standard for the film industry, however is 4096 x 2160.  In any case, if your camera can shoot in Ultra HD, you’ve got a mighty fine instrument, but your videos will take up a lot of space in your phone’s memory.
fps
(frames per second)
Video speed This is literally how many frames your camera/ processor combo is able to capture in a second.  30 will give you a pretty quality video. Anything lower than 10 or so will appear choppy and will not be able to capture fast-moving objects properly.  Slow motion video is usually taken at at least 48 fps, but some camera phones can take 120, 240, or more.  One thing to keep in mind is that higher framerates can sometimes require a compromise in resolution, so you should look at both specs when assessing a phone’s video capabilities.

What Phone Specs Mean to You, Pt. 3: Connectivity

So, we’ve talked about specs related to your computer’s brain (the CPU) and to its face (the screen), but what about its eyes and ears?  And, well, its mouth?  After all, what’s a face without eyes, ears, nose and mouth?  And what’s a smartphone without Wi-Fi, a wireless network, and all the other things it uses to gather and dispense information?  Not that smart, that’s for sure.

There are a lot of different kinds of connections a smartphone may make use of, and a lot of different kinds of networks it connects to.  In this installment of What Specs Mean, we give you the lowdown on LTE, NFC (not the National Football Conference, though you can get that on your smartphone, too), GPS, G, and a bunch of other stuff that can make it tough to figure out just how well-connected your phone really is.

Connecting to the world

Term

What it
refers to

What it means to you

GSM
(Global System
for Mobile communications)*
Use of radio frequencies by cell service providers In North America and parts of South America, carriers use the 850MHz and 1900MHz frequencies to transmit calls and text messages. These days, most phones can also operate on the 900 and 1900 bands used in other parts of the world as well.  GSM is one of two primary technologies used to enable phone service on these frequencies.
If you see ‘GSM 850/900/1800/1900’ or ‘quad band’ in a spec list, then, it means you ought to be able to use your phone anywhere in the world, though you will probably need to get a local SIM card (which will only work if your phone is unlocked) in order to connect to a network in another country. If your phone is only dual-band, you will not be able to connect to other frequencies even with a local SIM card. This map tells what frequencies are used where.
CDMA
(Code Division Multiple Access)
Use of radio frequencies by cell service providers CDMA is an alternative to GSM technology that is used by several carriers, including Verizon and Sprint in the U.S.  Though there seems to be no difference in the quality of service (this depends primarily on the network itself), CDMA phones are notably less likely to be unlocked or unlockable from a network.  Many phones support both, but you will want to make sure the phone you buy supports the technology of the carrier you want to use.  Of course, if you buy the phone from the carrier, it will obviously be compatible.
GPRS
(General packet radio service)
Wireless Internet through your cell service provider GPRS allows your phone to access the internet over your phone’s GSM frequencies, even at the slowest speeds.  This is what is happening when your phone says “E” in the bar at the top instead of “4G LTE” and it takes and agonizing 15 seconds to send an email.  We know it’s painfully slow, but it’s not the phone’s fault.  Other phones would just give up at this point. GPRS maxes out at 60 kb/s (we explain kb/s below).
EDGE
(Exchanged Data rates for GSM Evolution)
Wireless Internet through your cell service provider EDGE is similar to GPRS, but can run at up to 473.6 kb/s and can be used for heavier mobile data transmission like receiving email attachments and browsing complex web pages without wanting to chuck your phone off a cliff (which may well be nearby if you’re down to EDGE service).
3G Wireless Internet through your cell service provider The “G” in 3G (and 4G) just stands for ‘generation’ and is indicative of the evolution of broadband service over radio frequencies.  3G provides for faster and more power-efficient web browsing than its predecessors, which we don’t mention here because no one uses them anymore.  It does this by using a broader range of frequencies; a 3G phone is able to send and receive data on these frequencies.  Note: 3G is the slowest connection that will allow you to make video calls.
LTE
(Long Term Evolution)
Wireless Internet through your cell service provider 4G LTE logoThis is the first step towards true 4G technologies, and what the most advanced smartphones are suing at the moment.  It was widely decided that companies could market LTE as “4G LTE” in order to avoid confusion by using some term like 3.5G or 3.9G.  True 4G would have to provide maximum download speeds of 100 Mb/s while moving and 1Gb/s while relatively still (walking counts).  LTE provides maximum speeds around 299.6 Mb/s
Mb/s or Mbps
(Megabit per second)
Data transfer rate In the context of smartphones, this is a measurement of how fast data can download and upload, depending on your device and your network connection.  A megabit is 1,000 kilobits, which is 1,000 bits (mb=1,000,000 bits).  It should be noted that a bit is not equivalent to a Byte, which is represented by a capital B and is what we use to measure file size and data storage capacity (MB, GB, TB, etc.).  10 bits = 1.25 Bytes (1 Byte=8 bits).  So, downloading a 750 MB HD movie at the 100 Mb/s rate of true 4G should theoretically take about 60 seconds.  Of course, this would only be realized if the network performed consistently at top speed, which is generally not the case.
WLAN
(wireless local area network)
Wireless linking between devices  and wireless Internet through wireless router (location specific) This is the wireless connection provided by a wireless router or other wireless distribution method.  It can provide a link between several devices, like a laptop, a Smart TV, a wireless printer, or a tablet, and, if it is connected to a Internet connection, it can provide wireless internet (usually Wi-Fi) service.
Wi-Fi Wireless Internet through wireless router (location specific) Wi Fi logoWi-Fi is just the name of the technology most often used to allow an electronic device to connect to a WLAN.  Most modern phones come with a Wi-Fi antenna built in. Most people take advantage of this option, especially when at home, because data sent or received while connected to Wi-Fi does not come out of their monthly data plan.
Wi-Fi Hotspot Wireless Internet through wireless router (location specific) This is essentially a public Wi-Fi enabled WLAN.  This is what you are using when you use Wi-Fi at the airport, Starbucks, the Library, etc.  Because many people are usually using the same broadband connection at a hotspot, speeds can be a little slower and these connections are notably less secure than home networks.
Wireless Tethering
(personal hotspot)
Wireless Internet through your cell service provider This is a capacity that more and more modern phones have that enable you to share the 3G or 4G LTE Internet service provided by your cell phone carrier with other Wi-Fi enabled devices like your laptop or tablet.  This can be very handy if you are in an area without Wi-Fi or if you prefer not to share a wireless network with strangers.  Be aware, though, that the data used comes out of your monthly cell phone data plan and may incur an added fee, depending on your provider.  It also tends to drain a phone’s battery very quickly, so make sure you can plug in before you fire it up.
GPS
(Global Positioning System)
Satellite positioning Wikipedia provides this concise explanation of GPS, “a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites.”  This is how your map app knows where you are and how to tell you how to get where you’re going.  You can turn the GPS on your phone on and off, though TV would have us believe that it can be activated at will by “the man”.  It also tends to suck up your battery, though not as much as it used to.

 

Connecting to your provider

Term

What it
refers to

What it means to you

SIM
(Subscriber Identity Module)
Connection between phone and service provider A ‘SIM Card’ is essentially a small chip that contains the International mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) and related key that identifies and authenticates your mobile device to your service provider’s system.  It tells them what account to assign charges to, what your number is, etc.
 Locked Connection between phone and service provider If your phone or tablet is “locked” or “network-locked”, which most in the U.S. are, it means that it will only work with a particular network’s SIM card.  Most phones you buy from a particular carrier are locked, unless you request an unlocked device, which will likely cost more and will certainly not be subject to any of the common contract deals. This is usually not a problem unless you travel internationally and wish to use a local SIM card while you are abroad.
Factory unlocked Connection between phone and service provider This means your phone will work with any SIM card and that you can change these cards out as you wish.  You can usually purchase factory unlocked phones from the manufacturer (Apple, Samsung, etc.) or from distributors like Best Buy and Amazon, and they will usually be full MSRP.
Jailbroken
(after-factory unlocked)
Connection between phone and service provider This is a phone that was locked to a particular provider network when it was manufactured, but has been altered to enable use with multiple SIM cards.  Generally, jailbreaking a phone will invalidate its warranty and can be a risky process for the functionality of your phone if not performed by someone who knows what they’re doing.  In some places, including the U.S., it can also incur a hefty fine if done for commercial purposes (i.e. resale) and is technically illegal for anyone.

 

Connecting to other devices

Term

What it
refers to

What it means to you

Bluetooth Wireless linking between devices Bluetooth IconBluetooth is a short-range wireless technology that allows you to securely pair devices like a Bluetooth headset or hands-free car kit with your phone.  You can also use it to easily send small files like pictures or contacts between phones, provided they are compatible.
NFC
(NFC)
Wireless linking between devices NFC iconThis is a kind of radio technology that allows your smartphone, if it has the technology, to communicate over very short distances (around 10cm) to send certain kinds of information: NFC target (acting like a credential), NFC initiator (reading those credentials) and NFC peer to peer (sharing things like photos or contacts between phones).  This is the technology that ApplePay and similar phone-as-wallet services use.
Infrared Wireless communication between devices Many higher-end Android phones have infrared transmitters built in and come with a few apps that take advantage of it.  These days, devices with infrared receivers are mostly limited to TVs, DVD players, and similar devices that use a traditional remote control.
DLNA
(Digital Living Network Alliance)
Wireless linking between devices Most devices made by Sony Ericsson, Motorola, Nokia, LG and Samsung are DLNA Certified, meaning they will work with each other in some capacity.  This is why Android phones and tablets can “talk” to each other, but not to Apple phones.  DLNA cooperation also allows those same phones to stream audio, photos and video to DLNA compatible TV sets or speaker systems.
AirPlay Wireless linking between devices This is Apple’s answer to DNLA.  IT enables you to connect your iPhone and iPad to various other Apple devices like speakers, AppleTV, etc.
Streaming Media Device Wireless linking between devices These are devices like Chromecast, Roku, AppleTV, and Amazon Fire TV.  They plug into the HDMI port on your smart TV and use your home Wi-Fi to connect to your smartphone. Most of these are only for watching things and do not allow for big screen gaming.
USB
(Universal Serial Bus)
Wired connection between devices USB Type AThis is the port on your computer (and possibly your charger) that you use to connect it to your phone with a cord.  Folks primarily use this to upload music and video from their computers onto their phones.
Micro USB Wired connection between devices MicroB USBThis is a universal-except-for-Apple connection that allows you to connect your phone or tablet to other devices or to your charger.  This is what you find at the phone end of your USB cord.
HDMI
(High-Definition Multimedia Interface)
Wired connection between devices HDMI connectorThis allows you to connect your phone directly to an HDTV.  Normally, only phones capable of playing or recording video at 720p or 1080p (remember “p” from screen specs?) have an HDMI connection, and not all of these do. Again, this is for watching video/ displaying pictures, not for gaming.
MHL
(Mobile High-Definition Link)
Wired connection between devices This allows you to stream HD video from your phone even if it doesn’t have an HDMI port.  Many modern smartphones are MHL enabled, which means that there are additional connectors in the micro USB port that can transmit uncompressed HD video.  To use this capability, you will need an MHL to HDMI adapter, which will connect to the HDMI cable you plug into your TV.

Micro USB image By masamic via Wikimedia Commons
HDMI image By D-Kuru via Wikimedia Commons

What Phone Specs Mean to You, Pt. 2: The Screen

Nokia color screenRemember how exciting it was when cell phones were first able to show us pictures in color? Remember when we called them cell phones instead of smartphones because all they could really do was make calls and send text messages? Oh, you don’t, huh. Well, back in early 2000s, phones were just starting to show their colors and it seemed like magic. They had something called LCD screens (just LCD, no super) and their resolution was about 640 x 200 pixels with a pixel density of about 150 ppi and a palette of just over 4000 colors. We thought it was phenomenal.

Fast forward to today. SLCD, AMOLED, Retina display. Not quite 15 years later, we’re looking at screens with 2,560 x 1,440 pixels at 576 ppi (for perspective, the human eye is thought only to be able to see about 460ppi) and color counts in the millions.

But with all the advancement has also come some complication, especially for the layman who doesn’t really know what most if that stuff we just said really means. Well, sit tight, layman. We’re about to lay it out.

When you’re talking about cell phone screens, there are a few main things you’re really concerned with—size, clarity, brightness, and color. Size is pretty straightforward. It’s generally measured in inches here in U.S., from one corner of the screen to the opposite corner of the screen. If you remember a2+b2=c2 from basic geometry, we’re talking about c here. The other aspects require a bit more explanation, for which purpose we have created the following handy dandy chart.

 Specs related to your smartphone screen

Term What it refers to What it means to you
LCD
(Liquid Crystal Display)
Screen technology LCD screens have been around since the early 1970s, first in watches and calculators, then in TVs and smartphones as color was added.  LCD screens are backlit, in contrast with LED and OLED displays, which leads to greyer blacks and somewhat higher power consumption.  They tend to be less expensive and sometimes have sharper detail since they do not require the same kinds of pixel formations as LED and OLED screens.
Super LCD Screen technology Super LCD is a version of LCD technology in which an air gap between the outer glass and the display element has been eliminated, creating less glare and a “closer” feel.
IPS
(In plane switching)
Screen technology This is an upgrade on LCD technology that provides more uniform color reproduction and greater viewing angles than traditional LCD screens.
Retina display Resolution Retina display, which has nothing whatsoever to do with your actual retina, is an LCD technology that miniaturizes pixels in order to cram in more pixels into each inch of a display.  This allows for higher resolution and greater high-contrast crispness, making for better reading.
OLED
(Organic Light-Emitting Diode)
Screen technology OLED screens use organic carbon-based compounds that emit colored light when stimulated by an electric current.  They generally produce darker blacks and sharper contrast, since pixels actually turn off to create them, as well as more saturated colors, making videos and images appear clearer and more vibrant.  Also, since organic diodes emit light immediately when current is applied, OLED displays can have faster response times.  Because they do not require a backlight, they are also thought to be more energy efficient.
AMOLED
(Active-Matrix OLED)
Screen technology The important part of AMOLED, the Active-matrix, is actually a technology that is applied to most smartphone screens these days.  It means that each pixel is attached to a transistor and a capacitor that actively maintain the pixel state while other pixels are being addressed, as opposed to older passive matrix technology in which each pixel must maintain its state, well,  passively.  The take-away is higher refresh rates and lower power consumption.
Super AMOLED Screen technology Super AMOLED screens are said to be 20% brighter, 80% less reflective, and use 20% less energy than regular AMOLED.  Samsung claims that its Super AMOLED display also reproduces colors that match to more than 90% of the colors visible in nature, compared to 70% on LCD screens.  They use a two- rather than three-subpixel configuration (see subpixel below).
 Pixel
(from picture + element)
Resolution Every image on your display is made up of tens of thousands, sometimes hundreds of thousands, of pixels.  Each pixel on a given screen is the same size as all the others and displays a tiny part of the whole picture.  It is the smallest controllable element represented on the screen. The more pixels, the more pixels the more visual information can be displayed, resulting in greater clarity and more detail.  Measurements like 1080p and 1440p refer to standards of this measurement, 1080p indicating a resolution of 1920×1080, or “Full HD”, and 1440p indicating 2,560 x 1,440 resolution, or “Quad HD”.  Ultra HD, or 4K,  is something like 3,840 x 2,160.
Subpixels Color In digital screens, pixels are made up of red, green, and blue subpixels.  Most often, each pixel has a red, a green and a blue subpixel, but, as noted above, Samsung has recently created a screen that instead use pixels made up alternately of one red and one green or one blue and one green subpixel.  The configuration of subpixels affects primarily the range and exactness of color a screen is able to produce.
 PPI
(Pixels Per Inch)
Resolution This tells you essentially the number of pixels you could count across one inch of your screen.  If your resolution is 100 PPI (and we sincerely hope it is not), then one square inch of your screen is 100 pixels wide and 100 pixels high, or 10,000 total pixels.  For a decent picture, you want at least 300 PPI, but higher end phones these days have upwards of 500.
Gamut Color reproduction The color gamut is what one might expect if one has ever used or heard the term “run the gamut”.  It refers to the range of colors that can be represented.  The gamut of a particular device is generally compared to the gamut of colors that can be seen by the eye or to those that can be reproduced by other devices (see Samsung’s claim above).
Candela (CD) Brightness (technically, luminance) This is the unit used to indicate the light power emitted by a source in a particular direction, weighted according to a standardized model of the sensitivity of the human eye to different wavelengths.  In practical terms, it is a measure of perceived brightness, with 1 candela being equivalent to about the amount light emitted by a common wax candle.
Nit Brightness (technically, luminance) A nit is the slang and much-used term for the unit cd/m2, the measurement of light (candelas) on a surface area (1 m2).  Nits vary depending on what is displayed on the screen, so usually manufacturers provide a “maximum nits” measurement, which is what the phone gives off when the screen is all white.  LCD phones tend to be brighter by nits than OLED, measuring sometimes more than 500, but really anything more than 250-300 should give you a fine experience.
Viewing angle This refers to the maximum angle at which the variation of brightness, contrast, and color remains acceptable. A one-sided, flat screen has a maximum possible (though practically impossible) viewing angle of 180°, measured from looking flat on from one side to flat on from the opposite side.  The average smartphone has a viewing angle around 30°.  A good viewing angle is particularly important if you tend to set your phone down on the desk or table rather than holding it in your hands.
GPU
(Graphics Processing Unit)
Rendering power Though not actually a quality of the screen, a good GPU is what makes a good screen worth having.  Without it, the phone will caught up trying to actually get images up on its fancy screen, causing lag and sometimes even crashes.
Resistive touchscreen Input method Resistive touchscreens sense direct pressure applied by the user. They can be activated by your finger, a basic stylus, or a carrot stick, whatever you want to use to apply that pressure. The touch layer of these screens is usually made up of two transparent electrical layers separated by a small gap; when the layers come into contact, the contact is registered and voila.  The drawback of resistive touchscreens is that they do not have the multitouch capacity that allows things like pinch-to-zoom.
Capacitive touchscreen Input method Capacitive screens work by sensing the electrical properties of the human body rather than pressure.  Consequently, you need a specially designed stylus (like the Galaxy Note’s S-pen) that can replicate these signals if you want to be able to write on them with anything but your finger. Capacitive touchscreens often seem more sensitive than resistive screens and tend to be more durable.
Multitouch capability Input method Multi-touch is the capability some touchscreens and touchpads have that enable them to recognize two or more points of contact at once. This is what allows your smartphone or touchscreen laptop to recognize gestures like pinch-to-zoom.

WOndering about what’s under all this brightness and beauty?  Check out the specs on your smartphone’s tiny (but powerful) brain.

What Phone Specs Mean to You, Pt. 1: The Tiny Computer

AMOLED, GHz, GSM, megapixels, dual core, MicroSD, LTE, LCD.  What do all these mysterious words and letters mean?  And then, what do they really mean, like, in a practical ‘which phone should I buy’ way?  To the average user, the specs used to describe cell phones these days can be at best meaningless and at times misleading.  Not to worry.  MightySkins has done some research to help you sort out what means what and what what means.

All of the terms we mentioned, and hundreds more, are used to describe really 5 basic aspects of your phone or tablet: the display screen, your connections, the battery, the camera, and the tiny computer that makes all of these things work together.  We thought we’d start with the tiny computer.  We’ve made a handy table.

Specs related to the tiny computer inside your phone

Term What it refers to What it means to you
CPU (Central Processing Unit) AKA processor This is the brain of your tiny computer Every computer has a CPU.  Some would argue that every computer is a CPU. The faster your CPU, the more readily your phone will respond to your commands.  If your CPU dies, your phone is over.  For the average user the speed of the processor is more important than its name (Snapdragon, Apple A4, etc.).
GHz (gigahertz)/ MHz (megahertz) The speed of your processor 1GHz=1000MHz.  A 1GHz processor is able to move through processes at twice the frequency of a 500MHz processor.  This does not necessarily mean that you will experience twice the speed, but it will respond noticeably faster.  The fastest phones come with 2 or more GHz these days, but most people should be fine with anything more than 1GHz.
Dual Core/ Quad Core Processor configuration Dual core sort of means that you have two processors working at once.  Quad, of course, means four.  This means easier multitasking, and more than one core to dedicate to tasks that take a lot of processing, like video rendering, making the process go much faster.  There are also Octo Core processors, but they are very expensive and unnecessary for most people.  You will want at least a Dual Core, but a Quad Core will be helpful as tasks that you can perform on your phone become more and more complex.
RAM (Random Access Memory) Data moving capacity RAM is used to temporarily store app and program information and carry out the active running of processes, like turning an MP3 file into sound, making information from the Internet appear in your web browser, or moving the little avatars from your game around.  RAM effects how fast things happen as well as how many things you can do at once. These days, anything less than 1GB of RAM will slow you down.
Internal Storage Memory (not RAM) for data storage This is where things you retrieve, like photos, MP3s, and apps are stored.  The more memory you have, the more of these things you can have on your device without having to delete things.  An 8GB iPhone 5c, for example, has very limited storage space and you will probably have to store all your pictures in the cloud and stream your music.  A 128GB iPhone 6 will let you take advantage of its fancy camera and slow-mo options without a hitch.  The average user will probably want at least 16GB of internal storage.
microSD card (the SD stands for “Secure Digital”) Additional internal storage Most phones (iPhones are the notable exception) allow you to expand the memory at fairly low cost by inserting additional memory in the form of a microSD card, available anywhere you can buy a phone.  As an example you can get a 64 GB card for $20-30 on Amazon, and chuck it into any phone that has a microSD slot.
GB (gigabyte) Volume of memory Both RAM and internal memory are measured in GB.  Make sure you know which kind of memory is being referred to in the specs.  RAM will usually be 1-3.  Internal should be at least 8.
OS (Operating System) The software that makes your phone run The OS you use is determined by your device.  Apple, Blackberry, Android, and Microsoft phones all use a different system.  This is why you can’t use apps from the iTunes store on your Blackberry and why some things that are possible with an iPhone 6 are not possible on a Galaxy S5 and vice versa.  It’s like they speak different languages and some things have been translated but other things haven’t and then some things are just cultural and don’t translate.  When choosing a device, one thing to consider is whether the apps and functions you want are available on its platform.  So far, iPhone and Android offer the best selection of apps.